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历史名将成为道教灵官

——转自"殷诚安的博客"http://yuncha.blog.sohu.com

  道教护法神很多,其中最有名的便是灵官了。一提到灵官,人们首先想到的是王灵官王善,几乎所有的道教宫观中都设有灵官殿,所以人们对王灵官并不陌生。但是,知道道教有"五百灵官"的人恐怕就不是很多了。

  湖北武当山南岩宫内,有明代所塑的"五百灵官"小像,其相貌、服饰大同小异,神态均端庄、威严。传说昔日真武祖师成道飞升,其所率五百卫士亦皆随之登天,化为五百灵官。不过,五百灵官并不仅限于追随真武祖师之五百卫兵,据 宋初徐铉所撰的《稽神录》所载《张怀武》一条,其中讲到张死后入"五百灵官"行列。今查明 、清两代编成的《藏外道书》,内有《五百灵官爵位姓氏总录》(简称《灵官总录》),首位灵官"执法无私王元帅"即人们比较熟悉的王灵官。《灵官总录》中有张姓元帅者分别为:"驾雷主者张元帅"、"忠义配享张元帅"、"辅国扬威张元帅"、"早朝果义张元帅"、"丙戌宫张元帅"、"掌天下杀生案张元帅",共六条。其中"驾雷主者张元帅"应为《封神演义》中的雷部神张天君,"忠义配享张元帅"应为三国时名将张飞,唯其曾与关羽相配,享受国家祀奉,故称"忠义配享",所以将此二条除外,则所余四位张姓元帅中即应有一位为张怀武本人。

  我们也可由此得知:早在唐末宋初,道教中便已经有了"五百灵官"之说,不过,为五百灵官分别冠以爵位、姓氏,可能是宋以后的事了。因为《灵官总目》中只有姓氏而无名讳,故一直以来引起人们的普遍猜测。

  查阅《灵官总录》不难看出,其中许多灵官原形乃是中国历朝历代的名将。谨摘录几条(破折号后为本人臆测人名):

  "精忠报国岳元帅"——岳飞,"征辽护国薛元帅"——薛礼,"西天门外尉迟元帅"——尉迟恭,"降妖荡寇秦元帅"——秦琼,"三界急行谢元帅"——谢映登,"英锐无私裴元帅"——裴元庆,"白袍明武罗元帅"——罗成,"锦帆耀武甘元帅"——甘宁,"忠义配享张元帅"——张飞,"虎牢威武吕元帅"——吕布,"常胜将军赵元帅"——赵云,"据江镇国潘元帅"——潘璋,"正直果毅鲁元帅"——鲁肃,"三山定志张元帅"——张辽,"关帝驾下廖元帅"——廖化,"飞天阔斧手三界总管程元帅"——程咬金等等。

  上述这些灵官,大家一看便会联想到他们分别是谁。而有些灵官,我们虽然也知道他们肯定是某位历史人物,但由于历史上同姓将士较多,而名号又无特点可寻,故不好臆测究竟是谁,如:"除奸护国杨元帅"、"定霸除奸杨元帅"、"飞天大刀手三界总管杨元帅"、"飞天弓箭手三界总管杨元帅"、"掌天下除险案杨元帅",很难准确定位所指是某位杨姓将军。又如"地悭首领马元帅"、"早朝盛烈马元帅"、"早朝咸化马元帅"、"晚朝奉法马元帅"、"乙丑宫马元帅"、"飞天赤面将三界伏魔马元帅"、"掌天下交易案马元帅",我们亦无从得知分别为某位马姓将领。此外,《总录》中李、王、刘等姓"元帅"亦有很多,其形象也难于确定。尤其《藏外道书》本为明、清两代人所编成,这样就难免有宋代以后名将被录入的可能性,从一些生僻姓氏中我们甚至可以联想到少数民族将士,如:"飞天啖鬼都头斥元帅"、"掌天下不仁案巴元帅"、"掌天下谤道案木元帅"等等。

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